• What Is Miscarriage? Miscarriage is the loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks of pregnancy. The embryo or fetus cannot live on its own outside the uterus that early in pregnancy. The medical term for miscarriage is spontaneous abortion. Many of us who experience miscarriage are not aware that it is fairly common. For every 10 pregnancies, 1 to 2 ends in miscarriage. Miscarriage is most likely to happen early in pregnancy — in fact, 8 out of 10 miscarriages happen in the first three months of pregnancy. What Are the Signs of Miscarriage? Signs of a possible miscarriage include vaginal bleeding or spottingsevere abdominal painsevere crampingdull, lower-back ache, pressure, or paina change in vaginal discharge These signs may be caused by a condition that is less serious than miscarriage. But you should have a health care provider check you to be safe. What Should I Do if I Think I Am Having a Miscarriage? If you think you are having or may have had a miscarriage, contact your health care provider as soon as possible. Your health care provider may do a pelvic exam or other tests. What Are the Different Kinds of Miscarriage? There are five kinds: Threatened miscarriage — you bleed, with or without mild cramps, but your cervix is closed. Half of threatened miscarriages end in pregnancy loss. In the other half, the bleeding stops, and the pregnancy goes on normally. Inevitable miscarriage — you have increasing bleeding, and the cervix begins to open. In this case, there is no chance the pregnancy can continue. Incomplete abortion — some pregnancy tissue comes out of the uterus. But some stays inside. Sometimes treatment is needed to remove the remaining tissue. Complete Miscarriage — all the pregnancy tissue comes out of the uterus. Usually, you will not need any treatment. Missed Abortion — the pregnancy has ended, but the tissue remains in the uterus. Usually the tissue eventually comes out of the uterus on its own, but treatment is sometimes needed. When treatment is needed to complete a miscarriage, the treatment may be medication or an aspiration procedure. During aspiration, a health care provider inserts a thin plastic tube in the uterus to remove the pregnancy tissue with gentle suction. Ectopic Pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy is another kind of pregnancy loss. An ectopic or tubal pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. Rarely, it can occur in an ovary or in the abdominal cavity.


    What Can I Expect During Miscarriage? Not all miscarriages cause physical pain. But most women have some cramping. For some women, the cramping can be quite strong. For others, it is gentler. Women also have bleeding and may pass large blood clots. Many women are surprised and scared by the heavy bleeding that can occur during a miscarriage. The bleeding and cramping can last for a short time, or may last for several hours. Your health care provider can give you medicine and advice about how to manage the pain and cramps during your miscarriage as well as guidance about what is and is not normal to expect. It is important to keep your health care provider aware of what is going on and how you are doing. Whether it's painful or not or happens quickly or not, miscarriage is a very upsetting experience. How Can I Expect to Feel After Having a Miscarriage? There is no such thing as a "correct" way to feel after having a miscarriage. Miscarriage may cause you to experience a wide range of feelings. You may feel a mix of emotions that may include disappointment, despair, shock, guilt, grief, and relief. All are normal. Whatever your state of mind, remember Give yourself permission to grieve this loss. Grief is a normal response to miscarriage, and it should not be made light of or denied.If you have a partner, understand that he or she may need to grieve the loss, too. Your partner may not express his or her emotions the same way you do. But trying to communicate your feelings and support to each other may help each of you cope. Give yourself time to heal from the loss of your pregnancy. The amount of time it will take is different for everyone. It is up to you to decide if you want to ask a health care provider for advice about getting pregnant in the future. You may want to know when it would be best to try again. Or you may want to know how to prevent a pregnancy until you are ready for one. Staff at your local Planned Parenthood health centre, many other clinics, and private health care providers can give you advice and help you plan the timing of your next pregnancy. You should feel better as time passes. If you find it difficult to get back to your normal activities after a miscarriage, talk with your health care provider. Your provider may know of additional ways to support you and help you feel better. What if I Have Had More than One Miscarriage? If you have had two or more miscarriages in a row, your health care provider may suggest you have some tests done. These tests will see if you have any hormonal imbalances, genetic disorders, or other problems. The tests may reveal a problem that can be treated in order to help you have a healthy pregnancy in the future.


    What Happens in the Fifth Month of Pregnancy? Weeks 17–18 The fetus has a CRL of 5.5–6 inches (14–15 cm). Weeks 19–20 The fetus has a CRL of about 6.5 inches (16 cm).  Lanugo  — a fine downy hair — covers the body. The skin is also covered with vernix caseosa, a greasy material that protects the skin.A uterus has formed in a female fetus. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS Women usually feel fetal movements for the first time during the fifth month. It may feel like flutters or butterflies in the stomach. This is called quickening. The pregnancy symptoms of the fourth month continue this month. Heartburn, constipation, breast changes, dizziness, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, and gum bleeding are common. Breasts may be as much as 2 cup sizes bigger by this time .Ectopic pregnancy is treated with medicine or surgery. Talk with your health care provider about what treatment is best for you. The medicine methotrexate can be used to end a tubal pregnancy.Surgery can remove the pregnancy. Sometimes it is necessary to remove the tube with the pregnancy. This is called a salpingectomy. The tube may be removed through an opening in the abdomen. This is called an open procedure. It can also be removed through a small incision near the navel, using a laparoscope. Emotions After Ectopic Pregnancy Ectopic pregnancy is a kind of early pregnancy loss. Women who have an ectopic pregnancy often have many of the same feelings as women who have other kinds of early pregnancy loss, like miscarriage.

  • There are two kinds of abortion in the South Africa. — in-clinic abortion and the abortion pill. Abortions are very common. In fact, 3 out of 10 women in the South Africa. have an abortion by the time they are 45 years old. If you are pregnant, you have options. If you are trying to decide if abortion is the right choice for you, you probably have many things to think about. Learning the facts about abortion may help you in making your decision. You may also want to learn more about parenting and adoption. If you are under 18, your state may require one or both of your parents to give permission for your abortion or be told of your decision prior to the abortion. However, in most states you can ask a judge to excuse you from these requirements. Learn more about parental consent for abortion. Only you can decide what is best for you. But we are here to help. A staff member at your local Planned Parenthood health centre can discuss abortion and all of your options with you and help you find the services you need.

    Pre-Pregnancy Health at a Glance Good nutrition, exercise, and healthy lifestyle choices are important before and during pregnancySchedule a visit with a health care provider before getting pregnantLook for a prenatal care provider before your pregnancy Thinking about getting pregnant? Find a Health Centre All women thinking about getting pregnant want to have the healthiest pregnancies possible. One way to have the best pregnancy you can have is by planning for it ahead of time. If you are planning to become pregnant, it is a good idea to start making some changes as if you already were pregnant. You may benefit from changing your diet or lifestyle habits. Doing your best to keep yourself healthy before and during pregnancy will help you to be more prepared to handle the changes that come with being pregnant. Here are some questions we hear women ask when thinking about getting pregnant. We hope you find the answers helpful. Expand All Should I Visit a Health Care Provider Before Getting Pregnant? Many women and their partners can benefit from talking to a health care provider about their plan to become pregnant. A health care provider can tell you about any tests that you may want or need, as well as any lifestyle or diet changes that you may want to make. These kinds of appointments are sometimes called pre-conception or pre-pregnancy planning visits. At a pre-pregnancy visit, your health care provider will take your medical history. Your provider may also ask about the potential father's medical history. This check up may also include an overall physical exam, Pap test and pelvic exam and blood and urine tests. Pre-pregnancy visits especially benefit women with certain conditions that can make a pregnancy more difficult. Make sure to schedule a pre-pregnancy visit if you have heart or kidney disease, high blood pressure or other chronic conditions such as diabetes, lupus, or HIV/AIDShave a history of unexplained stillbirths, miscarriage, or have had other children born prematurelyknow you are at personal risk of having a child with birth defects or a genetic disorderhave or have had a sexually transmitted infectionhave a weight problem or a history of eating disordersare older than 35


    What Happens in the Second Month of Pregnancy? EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT The ball of cells develops into an embryo at the start of the sixth week. The embryonic stage of pregnancy will last about 5 weeks. During this time all major internal organs begin developing. Weeks 5–6 The embryo is less than 1/5 inch (4–5 mm) long.A very basic beating heart and circulatory system develop.Buds for arms and legs develop.The neural tube begins forming. The neural tube will later form the brain, spinal cord, and major nerves.The bud of a tail develops.The umbilical cord begins developing. Weeks 7–8 The embryo is 1/4 to 1/2 inch (7–14 mm) long.The heart has formed.Webbed fingers and toes develop.The arms bend at elbows.External ears, eyes, eyelids, liver, and upper lip have begun forming.The sex organs are the same — neither female nor male — in all embryos until the seventh or eighth week. If a gene triggers the development of testes, the embryo develops as a male. If there is no trigger, the embryo develops ovaries and becomes female. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS The second month is often when pregnancy symptoms become very noticeable.  Common discomforts like breast tenderness, fatigue, frequent urination, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting usually get worse. A woman’s body produces extra blood during pregnancy, and her heart beats faster and harder than usual to carry the extra blood.


    What Happens in the Fourth Month of Pregnancy? The fourth month marks the beginning of the second trimester. FETAL DEVELOPMENT Weeks 13–14 The fetus has a CRL of about 3 inches (8 cm).The sex of the fetus can sometimes be seen by looking at external sex organs on an ultrasound.Hair begins to grow.The prostate gland begins developing in male fetuses.Ovaries move down from the abdomen to the pelvic area in female fetuses.The roof of the mouth is formed. Weeks 15–16 The fetus has a CRL of about 4.5 inches (12 cm).Hundreds of thousands of eggs are forming in the ovaries in female fetuses. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS Some of the early signs and symptoms of pregnancy begin to be relieved during the fourth month. Nausea is usually reduced. But other digestive problems — heartburn and constipation — may be troublesome. Breast changes — growth, soreness, and darkening of the areola — usually continue. It’s common for women to have shortness of breath or to breathe faster. Increased blood flow may lead to unpleasant pregnancy symptoms, such as bleeding gums, nosebleeds, or nasal stuffiness. Pregnant women also may feel dizzy or faint because of the changes to their blood and blood vessels. Very early in pregnancy, ectopic pregnancies seem like normal pregnancies. A woman may have a missed period, breast tenderness, fatigue, and nausea. Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy include severe abdominal pain on one side of the bodycramps and spottingvaginal bleedingshoulder painnausea and vomitingfainting spells or dizziness If you have severe pain or bleeding, go to the emergency room right away. If you have any other symptoms of ectopic pregnancy, contact your health care provider right away. The earlier an ectopic pregnancy is diagnosed and treated, the better. Is Ectopic Pregnancy Dangerous? Yes. Ectopic pregnancy is life threatening. It is a leading cause of pregnancy-related death during the first trimester in the U.S. A growing embryo can rupture — burst — a fallopian tube. That can lead to internal bleeding and infection. The good news is that effective treatment is available.

  • Parenting with a Partner A child can bring joy to a relationship. A child can also put a strain on the best relationship. Either way, parenting with a partner takes teamwork. If you are considering parenting with your current partner, consider these questions: Do we agree on if and when to have a child?Does my partner feel comfortable talking about a long-term relationship?Will we share in the care of our child and our home?Do we agree on whether we need or want child care (day care)?Are we ready to put up with the strains on our relationship that may come from trying to get pregnant, dealing with pregnancy, and raising a child together? Discuss your answers to these questions with your partner to see if you are both on the same page and have similar expectations. With or without marriage, a life partnership can work with or without children, if both people are deeply committed to making it workunderstand what each expects from the relationship Parenting without a Partner Like raising a child with a partner, raising a child alone can be exciting, rewarding, and challenging. One of the benefits of single parenting is that you do not have to compromise your values and beliefs with a partner. You can raise your child as you wish. If you are considering parenting without a partner, questions about money, career or school, support, and child care can be even more important. Will I have to put school or my career on hold to become a parent?Can I count on the support of family and friends?Will money be a problem?Can I afford child care?Is there someone I trust to take care of my child if I have to stay late at work or school, or get sick? Planning Your Pregnancy Whether or not you are with a partner, if you're considering pregnancy, you may find it helpful to ask yourself the questions listed on this page. Consider your feelings and values about raising a child, and what you want for your life and for your family or future family. If you decide that now is the time to become pregnant, it's a good idea to talk with your health care provider before you get pregnant. Your health care provider can help you make important changes to your diet and lifestyles that will help you have the healthiest pregnancy possible.

    Pre-Pregnancy Health at a Glance Good nutrition, exercise, and healthy lifestyle choices are important before and during pregnancySchedule a visit with a health care provider before getting pregnantLook for a prenatal care provider before your pregnancy Thinking about getting pregnant? Find a Health Centre All women thinking about getting pregnant want to have the healthiest pregnancies possible. One way to have the best pregnancy you can have is by planning for it ahead of time. If you are planning to become pregnant, it is a good idea to start making some changes as if you already were pregnant. You may benefit from changing your diet or lifestyle habits. Doing your best to keep yourself healthy before and during pregnancy will help you to be more prepared to handle the changes that come with being pregnant. Here are some questions we hear women ask when thinking about getting pregnant. We hope you find the answers helpful. Expand All Should I Visit a Health Care Provider Before Getting Pregnant? Many women and their partners can benefit from talking to a health care provider about their plan to become pregnant. A health care provider can tell you about any tests that you may want or need, as well as any lifestyle or diet changes that you may want to make. These kinds of appointments are sometimes called pre-conception or pre-pregnancy planning visits. At a pre-pregnancy visit, your health care provider will take your medical history. Your provider may also ask about the potential father's medical history. This check up may also include an overall physical exam, Pap test and pelvic exam and blood and urine tests. Pre-pregnancy visits especially benefit women with certain conditions that can make a pregnancy more difficult. Make sure to schedule a pre-pregnancy visit if you have heart or kidney disease, high blood pressure or other chronic conditions such as diabetes, lupus, or HIV/AIDShave a history of unexplained stillbirths, miscarriage, or have had other children born prematurelyknow you are at personal risk of having a child with birth defects or a genetic disorderhave or have had a sexually transmitted infectionhave a weight problem or a history of eating disordersare older than 35


    What Happens in the Third Month of Pregnancy? FETAL DEVELOPMENT Weeks 9–10 The embryo develops into a fetus after 10 weeks. It is 1–1.5 inches (21–40 mm) long.The tail disappears.Fingers and toes are longer.The umbilical cord connects the abdomen of the fetus to the placenta.  The placenta is attached to the wall of the uterus. It absorbs nutrients from the woman’s bloodstream. The cord carries nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and takes wastes away from the fetus. Weeks 11–12 The fetus is now measured from the top of its head to its buttocks. This is called crown-rump length (CRL). The fetus has a CRL of 2–3 inches (6–7.5 cm).Fingers and toes are no longer webbed.Bones begin hardening.Skin and fingernails begin to grow.Changes triggered by hormones begin to make external sex organs appear — female or male.The fetus begins making spontaneous movements.Kidneys start making urine.Early sweat glands appear.Eyelids are fused together. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS Many of the pregnancy symptoms from the first 2 months continue — and sometimes worsen — during the third month. This is especially true of nausea. A woman’s breasts continue growing and changing. The area around the nipple — the areola — may grow larger and darker. Women who are prone to acne may experience outbreaks. Women do not usually gain much weight during the first 3 months of pregnancy — usually about 2 pounds. Women who are overweight or underweight may experience a different rate of weight gain. Talk with your health care provider about maintaining a healthy weight throughout pregnancy. Miscarriage Most early pregnancy loss — miscarriage — happens in the first trimester. About 15 percent of pregnancies result in early pregnancy loss during the first trimester. Learn more about miscarriage. If I Had an Ectopic Pregnancy, Can I Get Pregnant Again? It depends on what treatment you had and on the condition of your fallopian tubes. If a tube was removed or your tubes are scarred, it may be more difficult to get pregnant. But many women are able to have normal pregnancies after having an ectopic pregnancy. From 5–8 out of 10 women are able to. But about 1 out of 10 women who have an ectopic pregnancy will have another one. There are many treatments available to help women have healthy pregnancies after an ectopic pregnancy. Talk with your health care provider about finding the best treatment for you.


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    What Happens in the First Month of Pregnancy? Pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters. Each trimester is a little longer than 13 weeks. The first month marks the beginning of the first trimester. Gestational Age Pregnancy is measured using “gestational age.” Gestational age starts on the first day of a woman’s last menstrual period (LMP). Gestational age can be confusing. Most people think of pregnancy as lasting nine months. And it’s true that a woman is pregnant for about nine months. But because pregnancy is measured from a woman’s last menstrual period — about 3-4 weeks before she is actually pregnant — a full-term pregnancy usually totals about 40 weeks from LMP — roughly 10 months. Many women do not remember the exact date of their last menstrual period — that’s OK. The surest way to tell gestational age early in pregnancy is with ultrasound. Weeks 1–2 These are the first two weeks of a woman’s menstrual cycle. She has her period.  About 2 weeks later, the egg that is most mature is released from the ovary — ovulation. Ovulation may happen earlier or later, depending on the length of a woman’s menstrual cycle. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days. After it is released, the egg travels down a fallopian tube toward the uterus. If the egg meets a sperm, they combine to form one cell. This is called fertilization. Fertilization is most likely to occur when a woman has unprotected vaginal intercourse during the 6 days that lead into ovulation. Weeks 3–4 The fertilized egg moves down the fallopian tube and divides into more and more cells. It reaches the uterus about 3–4 days after fertilization. The dividing cells then form a ball that floats free in the uterus for about 2–3 days. Pregnancy begins when the ball of cells attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is called implantation. It usually starts about 6 days after fertilization and takes about 3–4 days to be complete. Pregnancy does not always occur. Up to half of all fertilized eggs pass out of women’s bodies during regular menstruation before implantation is complete. Learn more about how pregnancy happens. A Woman’s First Signs of Pregnancy For many women, the first sign of pregnancy is a missed period. Most pregnancy tests will be positive by the time a woman has missed her period. Other early signs of pregnancy include fatigue, feeling bloated, frequent urination, mood swings, nausea, and tender or swollen breasts. Not all women have all of these symptoms, but it is common to have at least one of them. 

     

  • What Happens in the Sixth Month of Pregnancy? FETAL DEVELOPMENT Weeks 21–22 The fetus has a CRL of about 7 inches (18–19 cm).Bone marrow starts making blood cells.Taste buds begin to form. Weeks 23–24 The fetus has a CRL of about 8 inches (20 cm).Eyebrows and eyelashes usually develop between weeks 23 and 26. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS Pregnancy symptoms from the fourth and fifth month usually continue. Shortness of breath may improve. Breasts may start producing colostrum — tiny drops of early milk. This may continue throughout pregnancy. Some women have Braxton-Hicks contractions. They feel like a painless squeezing of the uterus or abdomen. This is the uterus’s way of practicing for labor and delivery. Braxton-Hicks contractions are normal and not a sign of preterm labor. But women should check with their health care providers if they have painful or frequent contractions or if they have any concerns.


    What Happens in the Seventh Month of Pregnancy? FETAL DEVELOPMENT Weeks 25–26 The fetus has a CRL of about 9 inches (23 cm).The fetus develops more and more fat from now until the end of pregnancy. Week 27–28 The fetus has a CRL of about 10 inches (25 cm).Eyelids are usually fused together until about 28 weeks. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS A woman’s uterus continues expanding. Back pain is common. Pregnancy symptoms from earlier months continue. Dizziness may lessen.


    What Happens in the Eighth Month of Pregnancy? The eighth month marks the beginning of the third trimester. FETAL DEVELOPMENT Week 29–30 The fetus has a CRL of about 10.5 inches (27 cm).Testes usually begin descending into the scrotum from the abdomen between weeks 30 and 34 in a male fetus. This is usually complete by 40 weeks. Week 31–32 The fetus has a CRL of about 11 inches (28 cm).Lanugo starts falling off. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS Women often start feeling tired and have a more difficult time breathing as the uterus expands up. They may get varicose veins — blue or red swollen veins most often in the legs — or haemorrhoids — varicose veins of the rectum. Haemorrhoids can be painful and itchy and cause bleeding. Women may also get stretch marks where skin has been expanded. Braxton-Hicks contractions, heartburn, and constipation may continue. Women may urinate a bit when sneezing or laughing because of pressure from the uterus on the bladder. Hormones may make hair appear fuller and healthier.


    What Happens in the Ninth Month? FETAL DEVELOPMENT Week 33–34 The fetus has a CRL of about 12 inches (30 cm).The eyes have developed enough for pupils to constrict and dilate when exposed to light.Lanugo is nearly all gone. Week 35–36 The fetus has a CRL of about 12.5 inches (32 cm).The fetus is considerably fatter, and the skin is no longer wrinkled. PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS The growing fetus places more and more strain on a pregnant woman’s body. Common pregnancy symptoms continue through the end of pregnancy, including fatigue, trouble sleeping, trouble holding urine, shortness of breath, varicose veins, and stretch marks. Some fetuses drop down into the lower part of the uterus during this month. This may relieve the woman’s constipation and heartburn that are common earlier in pregnancy. But some fetuses do not drop down until the very end of pregnancy.